Physicist Michio Kaku talks about the primitive-types of batteries that we use, and explains why they cannot replace gasoline, or at least why not yet.
The point is that gasoline is extremely efficient in terms of energy per mass compared to batteries. Gasoline can accumulate some 46 M-Joule per Kilogram, where a Lithium battery can accumulate as much as 1.8 M-Joule per Kg, and a Lead-Acid battery can accumulate approximately 0.1 M-Joule per Kg. The difference is obvious. Gasoline has the capacity to store more than 25 times the amount of energy that a high-end battery can store.
This situation may change in the future with nano-batteries. As we know from physics, energy can be stored in parallel plates, just like energy is stored into capacitors. The amount of energy stored is direct proportional to the total area of the parallel plates. If nanotechnology goes ahead and we manage to make nano-surfaces, as thin as molecules, then we will be able to store enormous amounts of energy into a small volume, and maybe (why not) these batteries end up killing the gasoline once and for all. And then Thomas Edison will win the bet!