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Site news archive
This page is dedicated to our site news archive that is kept from the beginning of the new PCB Heaven (6/3/2009).

27/10/15AC electric motor working principleWorking principle of three-phase and single-phase AC motors.
21/9/14Basic Transistor CircuitsThis is my most viewed - most popular theory page. In this article i present a bath of useful circuits made with transistors, such as relay drivers, light/dark detectors, oscillators, flip-flop circuits, switch debouncers etc.
21/9/14Semiconductor Package FamiliesThe electronic components come in standard packages. In this page I have links to PDF files with the dimensional drawing of these packages
19/6/14Lab Power Supply 0-20V 10mA-2AYet another stable linear variable power supply capable of delivering 0-20V 10mA-2A with current limiting.
1/5/14DIY Small Size Air Compressor on the CheapEventually, i finished this project. I need to make the Pneumatic Solder Paste Dispenser ASAP and this small but fast air compressor was absolutely necessary for the recipe...
12/3/14Simplest and Cheapest Foot-Controlled Autocue EverI designed the simplest remote-controlled autocue system possible with materials that i unburied from my old-and-busted bin, my old P4 laptop, a totally broken USB keyboard, a piece of plexiglass... A foot-switch controls the scrolling of the text in the autocue screen.
4/3/14BJT Transistor Theory book Rev.A releasedThe first revision of the BJT Transistor Theory e-book has been released. One major error have been corrected in one image (thank you Nash). The first chapter has been re-written. Download and share for free.
12/1/14SMD Reflow Hot Air Gun NC Automatic MachineI used a piece of aluminum to mount the hot air gun on the carriage, and also i improved the coupling of the stepper motor with the threaded rod. The rod now revolves smoothly, there is no grinding sound from vibrations and the motor stays in position.
2/1/14SMD Reflow Hot Air Gun NC Automatic MachineHeading towards an end, i mounted the stepper motor and the driving pair, an M6x1 threaded rod with an M6 nut will do the job perfectly and with an easily calculated step (1mm per cycle = 1mm per 200 motor steps = 0.1mm per 20 steps)
30/12/13SMD Reflow Hot Air Gun NC Automatic MachineThe soldering reflow process is usually the only way to go if QFN packages are used. To properly reflow a QFN one has to follow a reflow chart provided by the manufacturer. The process takes some 6 to 7 minutes to fulfill, which is a lot for doing it by hand. Plus it is not easy for one to follow the temperature chart precisely. Therefore, i built this NC machine to do the reflow job automatically...
25/11/13BJT DC Load Switching Transistor - Page 2I wrote the second page of the first circuit to support the TEDIE Book. In this page I take some measurements on the DC Transistor load switch. More calculations are coming up next.
18/11/13BJT DC Load Switching TransistorThis is the first circuit to support the BJT Transistor Theory TEDIE Book. In this page we analyze the transistor operating as a DC Load Switch.
17/10/13Trash of Gold - Reuse before RecycleSome time ago I uploaded a video explaining how one can remove the various components from an old PCB fast and easy. It seems that many people misunderstood the purpose of this video. One gains more than just economical profit from salvaging parts...
23/9/13PICKIT 3 External Dual Power Supply (3v3-5V)Here is a quick and easy 3.3-5V fixed power supply for the ICSP of the microchip PICkit3 programmer.
10/9/13Voltage Controlled AC Light DimmerA forum member managed to use a simple test and educational AC Dimmer circuit using the 555 timer to control 3x1500Watts load for a professional Automatic Textile Press.
23/8/13Lithium-Ion Lithium-Polymer Battery Charger Using MCP73831Lithium-Ion Lithium-Polymer Battery Charger Using MCP73831
22/6/13Giorgos V Lazaridis - A Quick AutobiographyHere is my quick autobiography - How i got into electronics and programming, my first projects and electronic gadgets.
16/6/13My first project ever Remake Simple Needle DetectorThis is a remake of my very first electronic project. I made it when i was 7 with the help of my grandfather, the mop of my grandmother, the flash from the camera of my father. This was the kickstart for me in the world of electronics. Since the original pin detector is lost, i thought that i should make a remake for the history...
2/4/13Bistable relayjavascript:PopUpWindow('/userpages/images/Bistable_relay_1.jpg',600,400)
31/3/13SMPS with Battery Backup and NiMH Charger using the LM2595I uploaded the PCB artwork and the Bill Of Materials for my latest circuit
27/3/13SMPS and Battery Backup with the LM2595I designed an SMPS buck regulator with 2xAA NiMh battery trickle charger and power failure output. I designed this circuit mainly to gain experience with SMPS regulators, and to pair it with a boost regulator that i made some time ago and make a nice power supply with power failure light!
24/2/13High Efficiency Battery Boost Regulator using the MCP1640I uploaded the demo video of this circuit
8/2/13High Efficiency Battery Boost Regulator using the MCP1640I love camping, and i plan to make some gadgets for my summer holidays in nature. Electric power is something that you cannot find in abundance when you camp at the sea side, but sun and batteries are... So, i got this MCP1640 chip from Microchip to make an evaluation board and see what this tiny thing can do, by powering 2 high power LEDs with 2 heavily used batteries.
2/2/13Extra simple - Extra fast Fluorescent to LED Lamp ModI got the 45 degrees LED lenses and fixed them on the LEDs - The result is a more bright and concentrated light
27/1/13Modding Yamaha CryptonR - "The Crypton Project"Modding Yamaha Crypton R.A very instresting project that icludes the replacing of all Incandescent light bulbs to leds,a motorcycle alarm, and a power outlet for providing 12v supply.
23/1/13GSM Caller AlarmPanagiotis uploaded the firmware for his GSM caller alarm project.
18/1/13My Job - Repair Balluff BNS- 819 series Multi Limit SwitchI was called to repair a double-sided edge banding machine and discovered that the Balluff inductive sensor of a multi-limit switch was defective. Balluff does not produce these sensors any more, so the only possible solution was to order the complete multi-switch... The cost was ridiculously high. So instead, i modded the switch and used another inductive sensor.
13/1/13LED Resistor Selector DialI made and uploaded the demonstration video for the LED Resistor Selector Dial
15/12/12LED Resistor DialHere is a very simple way to "calculate" the resistor values to drive your LEDs - Download and print the PDF that i provide, follow the instructions and make your own dial selector within a few minutes.
4/12/12Extra simple - Extra fast Fluorescent to LED Lamp ModIt is Saturday and my spot-lamp just exploded. I do not have a fluorescent U-lamp to change, but i do have some 1W LEDs in stock, an LM317, a big capacitor and a 24VAC transformer... Axe in hand, hack has fun!
22/11/12Sine wave RMS, Peak and Peak to Peak voltage converterI uploaded a new calculator in Dr.Calculus - For sine wave signals to convert voltage between peak, peak to peak and RMS values.
22/10/12GSM Caller AlarmA very simple GSM CALLER ALARM.Combining a pic microcontroller with a quad cmos bilateral switch makes it a perfect solution for our circuit...
21/10/12DIY Small Size Air Compressor on the CheapI made another calculator spreadsheet with the hose air volume included
17/10/12DIY Small Size Air Compressor on the Cheap I uploaded a spreadsheet to do the air capacity calculations for different air pressures in the tank.
9/10/12DIY Small Size Air Compressor on the CheapI ran a quick test with the welded fire extinguisher tube and the car-tire electric pump, to see if the pump is capable to reach 9 bars of pressure in a reasonable amount of time. The results were better than i could have expected...
5/10/12DIY Small Size Air Compressor on the CheapI finished the air compressor tank. Following i will run a test to see if the pump is capable to fill the tank.
29/9/12Philips RC5 single LED Decoder and Transmitter circuit I uploaded a video demonstrating how my last circuit works
19/9/12Philips RC5 single LED Decoder and Transmitter circuitI uploaded the first version of the PIC software (HEX and Assembly listing)
16/9/12Philips RC5 single LED Decoder and Transmitter circuitI made this circuit for two reasons: first i wanted to make an assembly library to decode and transmit RC5 IR data, and second because i wanted to test an idea that i had to make an IR transceiver (reader and transmitter) using only one IR LED.
10/9/12DIY Small Size Air Compressor on the CheapI began making the air compressor accumulator. I visited the workshop of a friend of mine who has all the tools that will be needed
3/9/12DIY Small Size Air Compressor on the CheapI want to make a pneumatic solder paste dispense, so i need the solder paste, the dispenser, and the pneumatics ;) For the pneumatics, i also need an air compressor. My funds are too short to buy one, so i decided to make one low-capacity air compressor suitable for my needs.
28/8/12Foot Pedal on the CheapA very-very simple foot that works
23/8/12Reverse Engineering a Fidji Air Conditioning IR Remote ControlNo matter how hard i searched (though searching is not my best ability), i could not find detailed documentation regarding Air-conditioning IR remote control protocols. So i decided to reverse-engineer the remote control of my Fidji air condition...
17/8/12The Philips RC6 IR Remote Control ProtocolAfter the RC5 protocol, here is the new and advanced protocol from Philips, the RC6 infrared remote control protocol. Unfortunately, i could not locate not a single official source for this protocol, so everything that you read here comes mainly from reverse-engineering and information gathered around the net.
12/8/12The Philips RC5 IR Remote Control ProtocolThere are a lot (and i mean A LOT) of theory pages around the internet explaining the Philips RC5 protocol, so this page is probably a waste of internet space. Nevertheless, really had to write this page because of two reasons: First, i did not find one page that was able to cover 100% my curiosity, and second, writing a theory page for others is the way that I learn, since i have to learn something in deep details in order to write a good theory page...
7/8/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICI uploaded a new short video in which i present how the USB smartcard lock works.
4/8/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICI finished the project! Ive just uploaded the last page. The USB lock works perfectly fine! A video is about to come within a few days...
1/8/12Remote Control Basics - Understanding Protocol and ModulationTo understand how Infra-red remote controls work, it is important to know first what an IR protocol is, and what means "modulated signal". I wrote this article because i prepare a set of IR protocol theories and i need it as a reference.
28/7/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICI uploaded the PCB layouts and the PCB designs for the two boards of this project, the smartcard reader board and the USB switch board
26/7/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICI uploaded the version 2 of the PIC program with the serial interface for the ADG714. I am preparing the PCB files....
24/7/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICI mounted the USB switch with its base inside the PC box and provided 5V power to the external unit, the smartcard reader from another USB port. Everything works just fine!!!
20/7/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICI made a base from an acrylic plexiglass 4mm piece to fix the USB switch onto the PC case
15/7/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICThe first test with the ADG714 was successful. A problem with EMI interferences from my fluorescent CCFL lamps was treated with a simple ferrite toroidal core.
12/7/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICI soldered the parts on the USB ON/OFF switch and made the interface wire for both the ADG714 chip and the relay
4/7/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PIC I uploaded the first video of my USB On-Off switch. In this video i present and demonstrate how the smartcard reader board works.
1/7/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PIC I uploaded the first version of the PIC software for this project and explain the four operations.
28/6/12Fast ICSP connection board " F-ICSPcon "My PICKIT3 (clone) with the F-ICSPcon.
25/6/12My Job - Mains Power Failure Detection and Protection for CNCHere is a cheap and simple method to protect expensive electrical equipment in high-power machines such as CNCs...
23/6/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PIC I soldered all the parts on the smartcard reader PCB. I also added an extra pull-up resistor which i forgot during circuit design time...
20/6/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PIC I drilled the smartcard reader PCB and tested the slot if its pins fit in the holes. Everything seems to be fine.
11/6/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICI designed the smartcard reader PCB and the 2 PCBs for this project. I also developed the PCBs, only to identify some silly and not so silly mistakes which will cause a small delay...
8/6/12RFID Access ZonePike just uploaded the video for his latest project, the RFID access zone with PIC16LF1939, in which he explains how the system works, and how you can add or delete cards into the EEPROM memory.
6/6/12Keyboard-Mouse Smartcard USB Lock with PICI began a new project for my PC: I'm making a USB ON/OFF switch controlled by a PIC smartcard reader. The purpose is to enable or disable the keyboard and mouse interface by inserting a phonecard into a smartcard reader slot.
2/6/12PIC Smartcard Phonecard ReaderI made this circuit for 3 purposes: First, to demonstrate how can someone read the data of a Smart-card and more specifically a telecard (phonecard), second to provide the tools in the means of an assembly inc file to everyone that wishes to read smartcards with PIC and assembly, and third to prepare prepare myself for my next project...
31/5/12How Phonecard Smart Cards WorkIn this theory page i explain how phonecard smart-cards work. Since there are lots of different smart-card types and i cannot cover them all, i explain only the 128-bit Greek telecards from OTE telecommunications. I provide also links to documents which provide info about other phonecards.
27/5/12RFID Access ZoneRfid Access Zone Using PIC Microcontroller.
21/5/12PIC ICSP Instant SMD Connector with Pogo Pins I uploaded a new Eagle library file for a new design of ICSP pad connector, with holes in the middle for better and easier alignment of the pogo pins
15/5/12How to make a professional-like panel labelA walk through on making a professional-like panel label for your project.Equipment required are an inkjet printer, a laminator, laminating pouches, scissors, hole punches, adhesive.
5/5/12PIC ICSP Instant SMD Connector with Pogo PinsSome time ago i began replacing my chips and other electronic parts with SMDs, including the PIC microcontrollers. To program the microcontroller i had to add a through-hole or SMD connector with 5 pins, but this actually had much larger footprint than the PIC itself. So i decided to design a pogo-pin ICSP connector and an SMD Eagle library to print the ICSP pads on the PCB directly!
27/4/12BJT Transistor theory - A Common Emitter amplifier example with Fixed BiasI updated this page with some more calculations: Amplifier gain, efficiency and power dissipation on the transistor.
22/4/12Homemade Soldering StationHomemade Soldering Station with atmega8
17/4/12BJT Transistor theory - Power Calculation and EfficiencyIn this new page i explain how can someone calculate the important power parameters of a transistor amplifier: the input and output power, the power gain, the efficiency and the power dissipation
16/4/12PID Thermostat Controller with bult in AC dimmerThis is an PID thermostat controller with built in ac dimmer for resistive loads
11/4/12Safety relayTwo hand control safety relay
5/4/12BJT Transistor theory - A Common Emitter amplifier example with Fixed BiasIn this new page of my transistor theory, i design, calculate and prototype the first common emitter transistor amplifier circuit.
2/4/12BJT Transistor theory - Common Emitter with fixed bias design methodologyI uploaded a new page for my transistor theory, making them 17. In this page i explain how can someone design a Common Emitter amplifier with fixed bias, a very common design with maximum voltage amplification.
28/3/12HDD LED SpindicatorI uploaded the video for the Hard Disk Drive LED indicator (spindicator)
27/3/12High Efficiency High Current LED Buck Driver using the A6210I uploaded the demo video for the buck regulator LED driver circuit that i made two days ago.
25/3/12High Efficiency High Current LED Buck Driver using the A6210This is my first high efficiency LED driver. It is a high frequency buck regulator using the Allegro 6210 chip. In this circuit i drive a 10 Watts LED with constant current using this switching mode power supply chip.
22/3/12HDD LED SpindicatorI found a nice idea from a site for my PC mod. Viktor made a replica of a spindicator - a HDD IDE indicator with 10 LEDs in a circle which revolve as pulses arrive from the HDD LED of the motherboard. I thought like spicing it up by adding 12 LEDs controlled with 12 individual PWM drivers.
12/3/12LED driving and controlling methods - Episode 4 - Dual transistor constant current driverI uploaded a new video for the LED driving and controlling methods series. In this fourth episode i demonstrate the Dual Transistor Constant Current LED Driver with Voltage Regulation. The driver can maintain a constant current through the LED regardless of the supply voltage. In the demo i use two BJT transistors, and then switch them to darlington pairs.
6/3/12BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded the next page for the BJT transistor theory. In this page i show how can someone design a common base transistor amplifier. Then, i design one and put it under test to see if it works as expected.
29/2/12Calculator for the Single Transistor Constant Current Driver with voltage regulationI made a new calculator to speed up the calculations for the Single Transistor Constant Current Driver with voltage regulation
25/2/12LED driving and controlling methods - Episode 3 - LED Constant Current Driver with Voltage RegulationI uploaded a new video for the LED driving and controlling methods series. In this third episode i demonstrate the Single Transistor Constant Current LED Driver with Voltage Regulation. The driver can maintain a constant current through the LED regardless of the supply voltage.
22/2/12Single Transistor Constant Current LED DriverI uploaded a new video for the LED driving and controlling methods series. In this second episode i demonstrate the Single Transistor Constant Current LED Driver
21/2/12LED driving and controlling methods - Episode 1 - LED voltage control with limiting resistorI uploaded a new video from the LED driving and controlling methods series. In this first episode i demonstrate the LED voltage control with limiting resistor
18/2/12LED driving and controlling methodsI wrote this tutorial as an intro page for those that do not know how to drive the LEDs and how to control its brightness. The ltimate goal is to introduce the A6210 from Allegro Microsystems, a very efficient LED driver and controller.
11/2/12The Maximite ComputerUploaded 3 code samples for the Maximite Computer
6/2/12The Maximite ComputerThe Maximite single chip Computer
3/2/12Common Base transistor amplifier - Design CalculatorI uploaded a new calculator in Dr.Calculus section to support the BJT transistor theory. This calculator is to help the designer to design a common base small signal transistor amplifier
29/1/12Bench power supply from pc's power supplyMy completed power supply.
25/1/12Common Base transistor amplifier circuit analysis calculatorI made a Common Base transistor amplifier circuit analysis calculator to support my transistor theory.
22/1/12The comments engine is changedThe first comment engine that i had in the site was kinda impractical. So i re-wrote the complete script from core to make it more practical.
18/1/12Homemade Soldering Station 2 ( AVR )A homame soldering station powered from an avr this time
15/1/12High Res Cap MeterHigh Res Cap Meter
11/1/12BJT Transistor theoryIn the next page of my transistor theory, i put the theoretical calculations in the workkbench for test. I design, calculate and make a simple common base transistor amplifier and test the results with the oscilloscope.
6/1/12BJT Transistor theoryI began the amplifier design methodology section. I explain first the common base amplifier design methodology.
5/1/12How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motorA 3-phase AC squirrel cage motor is a very common type used in many applications. In my job, there are machines that have tens of these motors, powered either directly with 3-phase supply or through inverters. It is very important to develop a quick and reliable methodology to check if the motor coils have a problem or not.
3/1/12BJT Transistor theoryThis is the last hardcore theory page that i upload for the BJT Transistor Theory. In this page i explain what we mean by the term Small Signal, how do we define a Small Signal Amplifier and why it is important to know how to design such an amplifier. In the following chapters i will start with the amplifier design methodology.
1/1/12Flexible 555 LED Pulsing (Breathing) CircuitThe previous breathing LED circuit became very popular, but it had a major drawback: It was designed to operate with 5 volts only. After receiving many requests for a 12V breathing LED circuit, i decided to design a more flexible one. This circuit operates with 12 to 15 volts and has an adjustable voltage oscillation in terms of amplitude and DC offset.
28/12/11Product Review - How cheap is a power supplyI got from ebay a cheap power supply for my canon camera. It appeared as a normal power supply, with the canon brand printed on the label. It worked fine for some time, and then things turned really nasty...
22/12/11BJT Transistor theoryIn the next page of the BJT Transistor Theory, we discuss about the maximum undistorted (unclipped) output signal. I explain why the output signal is distorted, and how can someone design an amplifier with maximum unclipped output.
20/12/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded the next page of the transistor theory. In this page i introduce the terms output clipping and distortion and explain how they occur.
18/12/11Tripple PID Temperature ControllerI made the PCB. Since this is my first project with stacked PCBs, i was very pleased to see that the holes and the connector fits perfectly.
15/12/11Hack a Hg Lamp to a Powerful UV Light SourceI got some UV curable paint for my homemade PCBs. This paint needs UV radiation to be cured. I thought that my UV artwork transfer box would work, only to discover that this paint needs much more radiation. So, i hacked a mercury vapor gas discharge lamp that i had and turned it into a high power UV lamp.
13/12/11A 7-seg pre-wired Breadboard ModuleGeorge is an active member of pcbheaven. Last week he sent me an improve version for the 7-segment pre-wired module. He sent me photos as well as the eagle PCB board file. Thank you George.
12/12/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded the next page of the Transistor Theory. In this page i explain why the AC load line is different than the DC load line, and how to draw the AC load line.
9/12/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded the next page from the BJT transistor theory. In this page i explain how to replace a transistor in the AC equivalent with the Π or T model
7/12/11Tripple PID Temperature ControllerI uploaded the circuit schematic and the Bill Of Materials of the controller.
4/12/11Tripple PID Temperature ControllerI began a new electronic project. I will make a triple PID temperature controller for industrial use. I was asked to design this circuit for an IMA edge-banding machine. The controller will control the temperature of the glue-pot, and since the glue pot has 3 pairs of J-type thermocouples and heater resistors, the controller must have 3 different channels.
1/12/11BJT Transistor theoryOne more page has been uploaded from the new BJT Transistor Theory. In this section i go deeper into transistor circuit analysis by explaining how to extract the DC and AC equivalent circuits.
25/11/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded another page for the new BJT transistor theory. In the precious section i uploaded an intro for the transistor in AC operation. In this section i explain how to calculate and choose the proper coupling and bypassing capacitor for the amplifier.
21/11/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded the next page of the BJT transistor theory. In this page i make a quick intro for the next section regarding the operation of transistors with AC signals.
17/11/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded one more page for my new BJT transistor theory. In this page i explain how can someone draw the load line on the Ic to Vce characteristics, and the Q point (quiescence or operation point) is set.
14/11/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded the next chapter for the new BJT transistor theory. This chapter talks about the load line and the four operation areas of a transistor amplifier.
9/11/11PC Fan RPM Bargraph Meter and Failure Alarm with PICI uploaded the video for the PC Fan RPM Bargraph Meter and Failure Alarm with PIC, the circuit that pike designed, prototyped and made the PCB.
8/11/11PC Fan RPM Bargraph Meter with PICPanagiotis designed a PCB for his PC Fan RPM Bargraph Meter, and -after a technical delay- (hehe) he put it to work!
5/11/11PC Fan RPM Bargraph Meter with PICPanagiotis sent me an update for his PC Fan RPM Bargraph Meter with PIC. He added some very interesting functions: A Fan adaptivity function, a fan failure alarm and two different alarm reset modes.
3/11/11Acrylic Glass Folding HeaterI uploaded the PCB and the parts layout for the acrylic glass folding heater project that i made some months ago. I decided to upload every PCB that i make from now on, as long as it works fine and needs no hard-wiring.
29/10/11Tiny LED Debugging Board for Breadboard PrototypingI uploaded a new video showing the latest project i made, the Tiny LED Debugging Board for Breadboard Prototyping.
26/10/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded the next page of the BJT transistor theory, in which i explain in detail how the Voltage Divider Biasing method works.
22/10/11Tiny LED Debugging Board for BreadboardsI made a very simple tiny breadboard PCB with 4 LEDs and 4 resistors pre-wired, mainly for debugging purposes during prototyping. The boards are very small, two boards can be placed side by side and still will occupy 8 breadboard columns - each board occupies 4 columns, one for each LED.
19/10/11How the Brushless motors are made (BLDC) - Now with subtitles!I've added subtitles to one more theory video: How the Brushless motors are made (BLDC)
17/10/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded the next page of the BJT transistor theory, in which i discuss about the various base biasing methods.
13/10/11DC motors - how is it made? How it works? With subtitles!This is one of my most popular videos. Many people saw this video, and many more did not finish watching it because they could not understand my perfect and well spoken English......... Well... Therefore i added English subtitles for all the people to understand what i am talking about... I do not speak Greek neither Chinese. I speak English :D I will upload more subtitles for my other videos if i get some good feedback from this.
9/10/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded a new page in my BJT Transistor Theory with the title Transistor Circuit Design Essentials. More interesting pages are yet to come.
6/10/11BJT Transistor theoryI uploaded the next chapter of the updated BJT Transistor theory. In this chapter i talk about the hybrid parameters [h].
3/10/11BJT Transistor theoryWhen i first began my site, i wrote a quick (and ugly) transistor theory (24 February 2009). But now i have enough experience in writing, to make something more complete and more understandable. Therefore, i decided to re-write the whole theory from a scratch. I bet that my new theory will help beginners start designing their own transistor circuits, and more important that they will be able to understand the operation of transistors.
27/9/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerThe project is finished! I uploaded also a video in which i demonstrate how this controller works. I am very pleased with the results!
21/9/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerI uploaded a new firmware version for the PID controller (Version 1.1)
19/9/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerI repaired the controller and now it works like new. I also uploaded the first firmware of the PIC with full PID functionality. The controller responds very good!
16/9/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerExplosion is something that can happen while prototyping... The software had a bug, the temperature reached some 350 degrees, the plastic went on fire. I tried to pull the thermocouple back and touched the 220V on the heater... Bad things happen when thermocouples touch 220V
13/9/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerI uploaded the final schematic diagram of the PID controller, with the PCB modifications that i made some time ago.
10/9/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerI replaced the first thermocouple with the large mass because it had not a fast reaction to temperature changes, and i used a typical thin fast-acting thermocouple from a multimeter
4/9/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerI hacked a hair dryer to remove the heater and use it to test the thermocouple PID controller project
30/8/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerI uploaded a quick and dirty software to test the thermocouple interface and the 7-segment digits. Everything worked like a charm! I then discovered a bad wiring on the PCB which came to ruin the day: I took the wrong PIC output for driving the fan. I fixed this problem the ugly way.
26/8/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerI made connector for the 2 pushbuttons, the 2 LEDs and the 2 potentiometer. I also modded the 4-pins connector for the PC fan so that bot a 3 or 4 wires fan can be connected. Finally, i connected the reset button. The PCB is ready to get power supply and run!
24/8/11A PID controller example explained is simple wordsI wrote a simple and straight-forward example on how to make A PID controller with a microcontroller, because not many people feel comfortable with mathematics, but many would like to make a PID controller by themselves.
21/8/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerI made the PCB for the controller. I made no breadboard prototyping, so probably this PCB will not be the final version for the controller.
18/8/11K-Type Thermocouple PID ControllerI plan to make a pre-heater for my SMD works, and i will need a controller for the air heater. After learning how the PID controllers work, i will make my own PID controller. The controller will read the temperature from a K-type thermocouple pair. 3 7-segments will be used to display the current temperature and 3 more for displaying the set-temperature. A PWM output will be used to control the fan speed for the hot-air, and an optocoupler-TRIAC pair will be used to control the power of the heater.
15/8/11PID TheoryI plan to make a PID controller so i had to study about PID in general. In this page i explain what the terms P, I and D means and why this system is so widely used in modern automation
10/8/11PWM LCD Contrast AdjustmentI uploaded the video for my PWM LCD contrast adjustment circuit.
8/8/11PWM LCD Contrast AdjustmentThe HD44780 is a very popular Character LCD Controller very widely used. The backlit of such LCDs is usually implemented with LEDs, so a simple PWM driver can directly adjust the brightness. Unfortunately, the PWM module cannot be directly used to adjust the contrast. So, i made a very simple and small circuit to interface the PWM output of a microcontroller to the contrast adjustment pin of the HD44780 Character LCD.
3/8/11555 Breathing (Pulsing) LEDI uploaded a new video for the 555 Breathing LED circuit that i added yesterday.
1/8/11A 555 Breathing (Pulsing) LEDI plan to finish the PC case mod that i began some years ago, and i need a breathing (pulsing) LED circuit. I designed a very simple and very adaptive breathing LED circuit to use it for the power switch. The circuit uses a 555 timer chip and two transistor amplifiers, and has different adjustments for the fade-in and fade-out times.
7/7/11PC Fan RPM Bargraph Meter with PICThis is a very special page, because this is the first circuit designed and implemented by a PCB Heaven visitor. He made a PC Fan RPM meter with bargraph using the PIC16f628 microcontroller. The sampling rate is excellent, and the bargraph has 10 LEDs to indicate the approximate speed.
29/6/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padI uploaded a demo-video for my keycode lock mechanism. The project is finished
28/6/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padI uploaded the final schematics and the PIC firmware for the keycode lock controller and the capacitance touchpad
27/6/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padThe keycode lock is ready. I received the housing of the touchpad and i made the backlit. I mounted the touchpad on the door. Tomorrow (hopefully) i plan to upload the final schematics and code for the 2 PIC microcontrollers.
23/6/11Pulse Position Modulation and Differential PPMPulse Position Modulation is one of the most efficient data coding systems thanks to its high level of modulation compression, but not very reliable though. It s not used in critical systems or cable data transmissions, but it is widely used in remote controls and optic fibers.
21/6/11Manchester and Differential Manchester CodeI plan to make some circuits with remote infrared communication. After some research, i discovered that one of the most common coding methods for IR communication is the Manchester Code. I studied this method and -as usual- i wrote a theory page to use it as a reference.
17/6/1110 Buttons PIC Touch-Pad with BCD OutputI uploaded the video for my latest circuit, the 10 Buttons PIC Touch-Pad with BCD Output
16/6/1110 Buttons PIC Touch-Pad with BCD OutputThis circuit is a very reliable and accurate touch keypad with 10 keys. I use a PIC with a built in capacitance 16-channel module. The keypad is interfaced via a 4-bit binary code. I plan to use this keypad for my keycode door-lock circuit.
13/6/11LCD PIC Clock with the Maxim DS1307 RTCI uploaded the video for the LCD PIC Clock with the Maxim DS1307 RTC circuit
10/6/11LCD PIC Clock with the Maxim DS1307 RTCA friend of mine asked me to design a home automation for him. He wants me to build something that will communicate with his air condition through an IR receiver that it has, and it will act as a programmable timer, to turn it on and off automatically. This circuit will help you understand how to use the built-in I2C communication module of PIC microcontrollers, and also how to use the Maxim DS1307 Real Time Clock chip.
3/6/11PCB Heaven got Google +1 button!PCB Heaven got Google +1 button! Do you find this site cool? You want to share it with others? Find in the right sidebar the Google +1 button (among other social network services), and click it.
2/6/11My Job - Retrofit Star Delta motor automation on band sawIn this BLOG entry i explain how can someone make a very simple and reliable Start Delta AC motor automation. I made this automation because i was asked to retrofit an old band saw woodworking machine which had an old manual star-delta switch and no motor protection at all.
30/5/11How Gas Discharging Lamps work (Cold Cathode CCFL and Hot Cathodes)In this theory page, i explain how the gas-discharge lamps work, which types of gas-discharge lamps exist, and what means Cold Cathode and Hot Cathode lamps. As you understand, i plan to make a CCFL controllers for LCD backlit and not only.
24/5/11DIY frappé machine - It Works! - Part 8I uploaded a video with the very first test with my DIY cold coffee machine. It works perfect!
23/5/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineAfter a long delay, i began putting everything together for a first test run.
14/5/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineAfter many hours of failed designs, i decided which modules will be included in the motherboard topology and which not. I finally made the motherboard which has 4 modules plus the CPU. It ain't Asus, but it surely works.
12/5/11PCB Photographic Artwork Transfer UV CabinetIn this project, there was no Bill Of Materials section, because when i began building this site i had decided not to include any BOM or PCB in the projects section, only in the circuits section. Projects should not be copied as-is because of potential design errors through complexity. Projects should only be there to ignite your own imagination. But then i began receiving emails requesting the BOM, so, here it is. Copy it at your own risk :D
8/5/11My Job - Repairing a pneumatic foot pedalMany people think that when a pneumatic valve or other equipment fails, it has to be replaced with a new one. That is not correct. Pneumatic valves and regulators can be easily repaired just like pneumatic cylinders. In this BLOG entry i explain how can someone repair a pneumatic valve found inside a foot pedal.
4/5/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineI uploaded a new video showing the progress of my DIY coffee maker machine. I just managed to interface the digital input and output cards with the CPU successfully. I was expecting this interface to be much more complicated, but for my surprise, all 3 cards worked perfectly with the first test
30/4/11Homemade Soldering StationI uploaded a new firmware for the soldering station controller, and hopefully the annoying bug that occurs occasionally during start-up is gone. I added also an LCD splash screen to spice it up
28/4/11Automated Light Controller with adjustable Sensitivity and HysteresisI uploaded the video in which i demonstrate my latest circuit, that i plan to use in the backlit circuit of the keycode lock touchpad
25/4/11Automated Light Controller with adjustable Sensitivity and HysteresisThis circuit controls some high brightness LEDs according to the amount of light that falls on a photocell (LDR). The circuit is based on the Schmitt Trigger and has an adjustable sensitivity and hysteresis. I will use it to control the backlit on a touch panel, but it can be used for security night light control.
21/4/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padThis project is almost finished. After a lot of different PCB designs, and touch-pad tests, i finally came up with the final design. This is how i will put the PCB and the battery inside, and how the touchpad is made.
18/4/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padI went to 2 friends of mine, Christo Polidorou and Giorgo Skoulariki and made the parts for the touchpad. I made the wooden housing and also i made 3 pieces of different plexiglass, one transparent, one smoked and one sanded.
12/4/11The CharlieplexingI added an extra part to the Charlieplexing theory, in which i explain how can this method be used to interface buttons to a microcontroller.
8/4/11How to salvage parts from PCBsI uploaded this blog entry, after a conversation i had with a reader from China, who told me that he strips parts from old PCBs. I thought that more people may find this simple technique rather useful. I used to struggle with the solder iron and the pump to remove the parts form the PCBs, but with this way, it is a piece of cake!
6/4/11The CharlieplexingCharlieplexing is a rather new LED multiplexing technique, that utilizes the tri-state function of microcontroller's I/O ports to control more efficiently LEDs.
3/4/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineI finished all the boards that will compose the motherboard! These are the rotary table stepper controller, the shaker up/down controller, the input and output cards, the straw dispenser controller, the sugar and coffee dispenser controller and the CPU. I will mount them on a piece of acrylic glass.
2/4/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineI made the 3 PCBs for the CPU, the input card and the output card.
30/3/11Product Review - IR remote Control JammerAlan Parekh from Alanís Electronic Projects, also known from Hacked Gadgets, offered me some goods from his online store, as well as a kit from his Electronic Kits store, anInfrared Remote Control Jammer, which i made and test it, and finally wrote a review.
28/3/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineI uploaded the last important PCB. Also, uploaded the eagle sch files for those PCBs
26/3/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineI uploaded a new circuit schematic for my coffee maker machine. I designed the Input Card for the CPU. I also added an expansion capability, so that i can add several cards in series.
24/3/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineI uploaded the circuit schematic for the CPU of the coffee maker machine. 2 more circuits will follow promptly.
21/3/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineAfter many hours of meditation and Zen, i finally designed the architecture of the coffee maker controller. I did not expect to be THAT complicated. It turned out that the coffee maker will be my most complicated project so far (that will finally work!).
18/3/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineI uploaded a new video for my coffee machine. Yesterday i finished installing a reference position for the rotary table, and i demonstrate how i put it together.
17/3/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineI uploaded a new page for my DIY coffee maker. In this page, i explain how i added a reference position for the rotary table, so that the CPU will always know where the table is (at what angle).
14/3/11DIY coffee robot Greek style (AKA frappé) - Part 5I uploaded a new video for my Instant Greek style Coffee Machine. This is the first time that i put the modules together into a chipboard-made model case for test. I solve also some technical problems regarding the mounting of the straw dispenser and the funnel for the sugar and coffee dispensers.
13/3/11Instant Cold Coffee MachineAfter a half-year pause, i continue the coffee maker project. I made a temporary housing with chipboard and mounted the modules. It now starts to look like a coffee machine... somehow...
12/3/11My Job - Repairing a NUM controller on a BIMA CNC centerI decided to start posting the most interesting cases that i meet in my day job. I work as a CNC technician for high-end machines from the best makers of the world. In this first post, i had to go deep inside the NUM controller of a BIMA 300 CNC center (maker IMA) to find that the CPU of the NUM processor had a bad connection in one of its pins.
9/3/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padI finally decided how the touch pad will be. I made a 3D model of it, and also i made the CAM files for the CNC. Tomorrow i plan to visit a customer that owns an IMA CNC, and machine the parts.
5/3/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padA new major version is uploaded for the PIC. The most important update to this new version, is that i added the capability for the operator to change the code directly from the touch-pad, without needing to reprogram the PIC. There is a very specific procedure that the operator must carry out successfully for the new code to be accepted.
28/2/11PCB Etching Bath with Heater and AgitationI uploaded a new video in which i demonstrate my DIY etching bath with heater and agitation. This is from an old project that i totally forgot to upload the videos, and i finally lost them due to a HDD crash.
27/2/11PCB Etching Bath with Heater and AgitationWhen i made this project, i totally forgot to upload the videos, and somehow i lost them. So, yesterday, i took 2 new videos, one which i present the etch bath, and one during operation. This is the first video.
26/2/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padI uploaded a new video, the third in series for this project. In this video, i demonstrate the keycode lock mechanism mounted on my apartment's door. The controller and the battery pack are mounted temporarily outside the door, to be easier accessible for improvements/changes/debugging. I will leave it like this for a couple of weeks before i place it inside the door permanently.
25/2/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padI uploaded 2 new pages for this project. I remade the touchpad with only 2-region buttons, the pull-switch, i uploaded the version 1.0 of the PIC firmware and i did the first real test on the door, with 100% success. I will keep it that way for some 2-3 weeks to notice any software changes for performance/debugging reasons, and then i will put it inside the door.
24/2/11Homemade Soldering StationI uploaded a new firmware (Version 1.3) to fix some bugs.
23/2/11DIY Battery Pack holder with dual voltage outputsI made a new project, in which i present a DIY battery pack holder for 4 AA batteries with 2 voltage outputs, one for 3 volts and one for 6 volts. I will use it for my door keycode lock.
22/2/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padI uploaded a video with the progress of this project, in which i demonstrate the controller for the servo, made with the PIC 16F1937 microcontroller. I use 5 of the 16 capacitance sensor channels, with which i plan to make a 10 or 12 buttons touch keypad for entering the code.
21/2/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-pad - The controllerI designed the schematic circuit of the controller, tested it on breadboard and then made the PCB. I also made the capacitance touch-pad keyboard with 12 keys according to the Microchip's drawings, but seems to have problems in operation (as Microchip also states in its Ap.Note). So i need to re-design the keypad in another way.
18/2/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padI uploaded a video with the progress of this project, in which i demonstrate the mechanical part of the keylock. I show how the servo rotates to pull back the locking part and open the door.
17/2/11Servo-Actuated Door Keylock Hack with capacitance touch-padOpening the apartmentís door by entering a security code is super cool and usually prepares those who enter of what they are about to see inside, in my case they face my techlab. In this hack, i will show you basically 2 things: First, how you can hack and mod the simple classic keylock mechanism to make it servo-actuated for less than $5, and second how you can make a very cool capacitance touch-pad to enter the security code, with extremely low power quiescence consumption to be long-term battery operated.
12/2/11PIC Capacitance Sensor with 4 buttons and Multitouch FunctionI uploaded the video for the 4 buttons capacitance touch sensor using the internal capacitance sensor of the PIC 16F1937
8/2/11PIC Capacitance Sensor with 4 buttons and Multitouch FunctionThis circuit utilizes the built-in capacitance sensor of a PIC microcontroller, to implement a 4 button touch pad. This PIC can be extended up to 16 buttons, but i wanted to keep it simple. You can easily extend it though. Moreover, the touch pad functions as a multi-touch pad! (Video pending)
26/1/11PIC Frequency-Change Capacitance Touch ButtonI uploaded the video for the PIC capacitance touch button - Frequency Change
25/1/11DIY AC Hum Touch ButtonI uploaded a new video for a circuit that i made a couple of days ago.
23/1/11PIC Frequency-Change Capacitance Touch ButtonThis is the first capacitance touch sensor that i present in my site. This is a PIC-based touch sensor that uses the Frequency-Change technique to sense a touch. The code is written in a way that, even if someone has no experience at all with PIC programming but can provide himself a PIC programmer, he can make the touch button work easily.
19/1/11DIY AC Hum Touch ButtonThe AC Hum touch sensor is a special touch sensing technique, rarely used for switching applications. Because it has only one electrode, it is often confused with the capacitance touch sensor, but that is not true. In this page i make a simple pushbutton and an ON-OFF switch to demonstrate this method.
17/1/11Resistance Touch Button circuitI uploaded a new video, demonstrating a resistance touch pushbutton / toggle switch circuit.
16/1/11PCB Heaven chirps on Twitter!!!After the RSS feeds, i decided added a twitter account to follow the site easier.
14/1/11Resistance Touch ButtonThis is the first type of touch sensors that i will present, after publishing the theory of touch sensors. I made a resistance touch button with some variations. First, a typical resistance momentary touch button, and then i changed this circuit to drive a relay. Finally, i added a dual Flip-Flop IC and made a resistance toggle touch button.
9/1/11PCB Photographic Artwork Transfer UV CabinetI was asked to explain how i calculated the distance of the LEDs form the PCB, so that the projected light would completely cover the PCB without leaving blind spots. I then noticed that i did not have his calculation in my page (sorry). So i added ASAP.
7/1/11How Touch Buttons workI uploaded a new video. In this video i explain how the Capacitance touch sensors work. I have prepared also another video in which i explain how the Resistance and the AC Hum sensors work.
6/1/11How Touch Buttons workI uploaded a new video. In this video i explain how the Resistance touch sensors and the AC Hum touch sensors work. I have prepared also another video in which i explain how the Capacitance touch sensors work.
4/1/11How Touch Buttons workIn this theory page, i explain how the touch switches (buttons) work. I cover various methods, the resistance touch sensor, the AC Hum touch sensor and the capacitance touch sensor. I extensively cover the capacitance touch sensors. Also, i explain how a capacitance touch sensor can be used to make buttons that are covered under non-conductive materials, such as plastic, wood, plexiglas etc.
30/12/10Reverse-Engineering the Linear Guide of a DVD HeadI plan to make a coil-winding machine, and so i needed a stacker mechanism. Inside a PC DVD player, there is a nice 35mm stroke linear guide with a precision moving mechanism, perfect for my needs. The problem is that i did not know how this works, and so i did what i do best: I reverse engineered it to find out how it works.
29/12/10LED Fade In Fade Out effect with simple componentsI uploaded a new video for a circuit that i made a couple of days ago, and it was an LED fade-In Fade-Out effect with simple components.
25/12/10Reverse-Engineering an LCD DisplayFinally, i managed to reverse-engineer this sweet LCD. With a simple PIC running on internal oscillator (16MHz) and a few external TTLs, i got 50Hz refresh rate. With an external oscillator (32MHz) it can climb up to 400 Hz.
24/12/10Reverse engineer an LCD display - It works SWEET! [PART 3 of 3]Finally, i managed to get a clear and stable screen out of this LCD. The reverse engineering process is finished.
22/12/10Reverse-Engineering an LCD DisplayI finally managed to upload a correct firmware to a PIC 16F1937 and show some patterns to the LCD. I discovered also that i will need a faster oscillator for the PIC (16MHz are not enough-i will go up to 32) and an external memory (something like 256 KBit) to show some results. Watch the second video.
20/12/10Reverse-Engineering an LCD DisplayI have more fun reverse-engineering something, rather than making it from a scratch. I had an LCD on my hands, with absolutely no information or datasheet available whatsoever, but i badly needed to make it work.
19/12/10LED Fade-In Fade-Out DimmerThe fade-in and fade-out effect gives a cool look and feel to electronic projects. I made two simple analog fade-in fade-out circuits to control multiple LEDs. It can also be used for you car dome light or for off-delay security light.
14/12/10Long Range (10mt) IR Beam Break DetectorI made and uploaded a new video for a circuit that i recently uploaded.
13/12/10Long Range (10mt) IR Beam Break DetectorAfter i published the precision short distance (2cm) IR beam cut detector, i began receiving mails and comments from people asking me how to increase the range. That was impossible with the previous circuit. So, i designed a new reliable long range IR beam cut detector. During tests, i managed to get 10 meters of range (33 feet) with no false triggers.
7/12/10Product Review - LinistepperJames Newton from Piclist offered me a Linistepper for my instant cold coffee machine project that i've been working past 7 months. Before i put this Linistepper to work, i felt like reviewing this item.
30/11/10The Acrylic Glass Folding Heater project is finished!The project began at the 7th of August 2010, and finished at the 30th of November the same year. After running some tests, the heater appears to operate very good, the water is not heated while the aluminum water-cooled bases are kept cold all the time. View the video that i demonstrate the folding heater.
29/11/10The base is finished and air circulation is added - Acrylic Glass Folding HeaterLittle before the end (it was about time), i finished the base with the new drawings and i put some extra air circulation fan to keep the space under the lamp cool.
22/11/10I made a draft drawing for the base of the whole construction - Acrylic Glass Folding HeaterI usually draw 3D models, yet this time i practiced my artistic skills and draw a draft on paper. I also made the BOM for the woods that i will need.
21/11/10The water tank and radiator for the Acrylic Glass folding heaterAfter many experiments and tests, i concluded that a simple metallic tank with at least 1lt volume was enough to dissipate all the heat. So, i made one from a cookie container... Works sweet, like the cookies!
14/11/10And the winnign design is... (acrylic glass folding heater)After many tests and experiments, i found a design that requires low power for the lamp, and also the water needs to dissipate not more than 12 watts of energy. This means 2 things: First the energy consumption of the lamp is dramatically decreased, and second i will not need of a peltier cooler to cool the water down. A simple fan will do the job. A 6mm thickness plexi-glass takes around 3 minutes to be ready for bend, which is a good time.
9/11/10I added a simple reflector and managed to drop the power down140 watts are way too much to dissipate! So i began searching for ways to reduce this number. The first yesy was to add a reflector underneath the radiator. This first step was a complete success, because i managed to increase the surface temperature dramatically, and also i decreased the power that needs to be dissipated about 32%. That gave me ideas to further increase the system efficiency.
7/11/10I began making the cooler for the Acrylic Glass Folding Heater projectLets be scientist for a while! I ran an experiment to calculate the energy that the water gets over time, and from this to calculate the power of the water cooler that i need to have in order to keep the water cool. The method and the results are extremely interesting, but also extremely disappointing... I need to increase efficiency dramatically otherwise my Heating Folder will require more energy to operate than a power drill...
6/11/10Acrylic Glass Folding HeaterJB Weld is not so strong after all, and NOT suitable for aluminums. I used it to "weld" taps for the aluminum tubes, but in my great disappointment, the weld of JB weld failed. I have to think of another way to seal the tubes.
4/11/10PCB Heaven got RSS!Due to technical problems, i had to discontinue the newsletters. Therefore, i decided to add an RSS feed to share the site news. The RSS will be updated upon any change and/or update. Enjoy!
3/11/10The calendar got picturesI made a change to the site calendar. From now on, each entry will have its own image, to give you an idea of this entry in a glance.
2/11/10A section changed face!The hacks n mods section of PCB Heaven changed its face for good. From now on, it will be named Tech News. In this section, your projects will continue to be featured as always, but there will also be entries with news from the world of technology.
24/10/10Men Of War Game Console - The project is finished!!!The project began at the 7th of August 2010 and finished at the 24th of October same year. The console is 100% completed and fully functional. Check out the presentation videos.
22/10/10Acrylic Glass Folding HeaterI made a PCB for the dimmer circuit and test it with a small lamp and the 850 watts heater. The PCB was a success!
19/10/10Acrylic Glass Folding HeaterI decided to use a dimmer circuit that i had designed some time ago. I tested it on a breadboard. Check the results...
16/10/10Acrylic Glass Folding HeaterI began making a new tool-project for my workbench. I plan to make a heater for acrylic glasses, so that i can fold them. I use the heater of a laser printer to heat the material. I plan to make a peltier water cooler to cool the aluminum profiles that the acrylic glass will be placed, so that only a thin line will be heated. But this may change in the meanwhile...
3/10/10Men Of War Game Console3 new pages have been uploaded. In the first, i present the making of the housing. Next i show how i transfered the breadboard circuits onto a PCB, and last i talk about a crazy idea that i had regarding the lighting effect of the bottom cover of my console.
30/9/10Men Of War Game ConsoleI had a mistake on the circuit of the MOW timer, and i fixed it.
28/9/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineThe next controller is for the shaker linear guide motor. This was a very simple controller, with linear speed adjustment, direction selection, top-bottom limit switch outputs and interface for the encoder.
27/9/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI made another controller for the coffee machine. This time i made the controller for the sugar and coffee dispensers. I used a circuit that i made a couple of days ago, and with relays i can control which one of the motors to run alone, or i can run them simultaneously.
25/9/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI began making the controllers for the modules. First, i made the straw separator controller.
23/9/10Men Of War Game ConsoleI have just upload the very first video in which i demonstrate the Men Of War game console capabilities. The project is not 100% complete, because has no housing and the countdown timer is not operational, but the controller itself is 100% functional!
22/9/10New site search capabilitiesI added new site search capabilities. On the right bar of each page and on the middle top of the home page, i added a new search bar. The search is powered by google and is done within the pages of PCB Heaven. Enjoy!
20/9/10A Portable LED Head LampDuring some experiments with LEDs and acrylic glasses, i came up with this idea of an LED head lamp. The construction and the electronic staff are so simple, that even a kid can make them. This project is addressed not to those who want to have a cheap head lamp, but to those who want to get some more ideas for LEDs and acrylic glass constructions.
10/9/10The Timer Modules - Timer2I wrote a new page for my on-line PIC book. I this page i explain how the Timer2 module works and which registers controls this module.
9/9/10A Camping LED LampI chopped a very old electric lamp that i had and converted it into a sophisticated LED light lamp. The interesting part of this project is the way that the LEDs light. There are 4 scales, which not only control the brightness of the lamp, but also control the direction of the light.
30/8/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI made the next module for the Instant Greek style coffee bot, and that is the rotary table, which will move the glass from module to module in a rotary movement.
29/8/10An LED Array PWM Dimmer with the 555Connecting the 555 as a PWM generator, i drive with it an LED array. This circuit performs an LED PWM dimmer with minimum components and high power efficiency, especially in low LED brightness. It can be powered in a wide voltage range from 4 up to 15 volts. Along with its compact size, it is ideal for camping or night fishing, and generally whenever mobility and long-time use is required.
28/8/10Full and Half Stepper Motor Controller with the Sanyo STK672-110A full and Half wave stepper motor controller for 2-phase hybrid unipolar stepper motors. The circuit uses the STK672-110 hybrid chip from Sanyo and 7 external simple components. The speed is controlled with the frequency of a pulse signal, while the rotation direction is controlled with a single wire.
27/8/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI made a better base for the sugar and coffee dispenser modules, so that i can align the tank with the motor shaft easily.
24/8/10Men Of War Game ConsoleI found an annoying bug in the code. When i was moving the joystick on diagonal direction right from the center and without the control key pressed, then the controller would send the control-down command to host, and directly the arrow directions. Yet, the game speed was much slower and would only recognize one arrow. I added 100msec delay and was fixed.
22/8/10Men Of War Game ConsoleAfter many days of sketching and drawing, i present to you the final housing for my Men Of War game console.
21/8/10An LED PushbuttonWith materials ripped off from old appliances and junk-PCBs, i made a fancy LED pushbutton. The LED is fully functional and can turn on and off independently, while if you press it, it makes contact at a NO micro-pushbutton.
20/8/10LED Off Delay with dimming effectI designed an extremely simple LED off delay circuit with dimming effect. A pushbutton turns on a number of LEDs, which are kept on as long as the button is pressed. When the button is released, an off-delay will keep the LEDs turned on for an amount of time. Then, the LEDs will start dimming slowly, until they are completely turned off. I have include 4 different schematic diagrams for 4 different power supplies (5, 9, 12 and 15 volts). A single circuit can control up to 104 LEDs @ 15Volts.
19/8/10Men Of War Game ConsoleIn continue to the Fixed Countdown Timer For -Geek- Gamers, i made a triple version of this timer to embed it into my MOW game console, to keep time of the reloading of slow-reloading weapons such as the Sturmtiger and the Katyusha.
18/8/10Fixed Countdown Timer For GamersI made this simple fixed-time countdown timer for my favorite game, Men Of War. It starts the countdown with the press of a button. During the countdown, the LED flashes. The closer the countdown is to 0 seconds, the faster the LED flashes. Also, the circuit has a buzzer for acoustic notifications. It can be used for many other purposes that a countdown is required.
12/8/10The Timer Modules - Timer1I wrote a new page for my on-line PIC book. I this page i explain how the Timer1 module works and which registers controls this module.
11/8/10PCB Heaven got TAGS!I tried different techniques to link the pcbheaven content to each other, and came to the conclusion that using tags is the most efficient and easy way to do it. For beginning, i put tags to the circuit pages, theory, projects and experiment pages. Also, i equipped these pages with a tag cloud bar (right side) and i also made a cloud storm page (visit the link of this site-new to go to the storm)
10/8/10Men Of War Game ConsoleMen Of War is my favorite game so far. This game is based on micro-management of units. The man who micros best, has more chances to win. To improve my game speed, i make this game console. It is controlled with the left hand and has all the combat shortcuts. But most important is the Direct Control joystick that it has. This joystick simulates the arrow keys of the keyboard and the control key simultaneously, so to engage and disengage Direct Control mode automatically, without having to press other keys.
7/8/10Homemade Soldering StationI improved the firmware of the soldering station to maintain the set-temperature with smaller error. Download the latest firmware.
2/8/10A Microstepping Driver with the Sanyo STK672-080I found this incredible STK672 series chip from Sanyo and i made a micro-stepping unipolar hybrid 2-phase stepper motor controller. The circuit is ridiculously simple, while the operation of the 200 steps per cycle motor is extremely smooth with minimum vibrations.
20/7/10Instant Cold Coffee (Frape) RobotI made the automatic sugar and coffee dispenser mechanisms. In terms of mechanics, these two modules are ridiculously simple. Yet the theory turned to be a headache! Enjoy.
15/7/10Simple Unipolar Stepper Motor Full Step ControllerThis is a very simple circuit for controlling unipolar stepper motors with full step rotation. The circuit uses no microcontroller and no special ICs, except a common 4017 CMOS. The speed of the rotation can be controlled by the frequency of the input pulses.
29/6/10PCB Heaven forum upgraded!The PCB Heaven forum has been upgraded to SMF 2.0 RC3. Congratulations for the SMF team
27/6/10How The Key Matrices WorkI wrote a new theory page about key matrices. I explain how they work, and what the ghosting and masking problems are. Also, i explain briefly how LED matrices work.
23/6/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI improved the rising-lowering mechanism by adding a homemade linear encoder and a couple of limit switches.
19/6/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI made the stinger module that puts the straws from the straw separator to the coffee glass. I also changed the lousy LED-photoresistor sensor pairs with my new-designed IR sensor pairs. I run tests with full success!
13/6/10IR Short Distance Beam Cut DetectorI designed and tested a new circuit, for close distance high accuracy infrared beam break detection. I used an infrared LED with 7Khz modulated signal for the transmitter, and an infrared diode for the receiver. The receivers amplification is adjustable using a potentiometer. The output can be easily set to Normal HIGH or normal LOW state. This circuit is intended to be used as replacement for the two led-photoresistor pairs at the straw separator module of the instant cold coffee machine.
9/6/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineThe first attempt to make the straw group failed on the revolver assemble. I used a CNC from a friend of mine to re-make the revolver pieces with a very good precision. The new revolver is now perfectly assembled, in a solid construction.
6/6/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI made the group that separates one straw from the straw tube. That is the most complicated group of all.
3/6/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI finished the mixer group. The group now is completed and ready to be mounted and wired onto the coffee maker.
27/5/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI have upload 2 new pages. I also made a prototype mechanism for the raising and lowering of the coffee mixer
24/5/10Instant Cold Coffee MachineI have began a long-term project. I am making an instant cold coffee (frappé) machine. This project has very simple electronics, but has more complicated mechanical parts.
19/5/10Homemade soldering station with temperature feedback (for under $40)I have changed the ICSP circuitry (a resistor was misplaced) and i added a Bill Of Materials
17/5/10Homemade Soldering StationI have add new material to this project. I run some tests with the soldering iron. I soldered a chip and a thyristor. Check out the video and see the results.
16/5/10Homemade Soldering StationA new project has been uploaded! For under $40, i made a professional-like sodlering station. This controller will read the temperature from the soldering tip, and will turn on or off the heater accordingly. This is a characteristic only for very expensive soldering stations. Cheaper sodlering stations have only (unlike my controller) a PWM or a similar power controller, that only sets the power delivered to the heater, WITHOUT TEMPERATURE FEEDBACK.
14/5/10A 7-seg pre-wired Breadboard ModuleA project has been updated. I added new material to this project and uploaded new photos.
12/5/10A 7-seg pre-wired Breadboard ModuleA new project is uploaded! I made a 5 digits 7-segment module for my breadboard circuits. It will save me a lot of time, as all digits are pre-wired for multiplexing. Also, the 13-pins connector has an offset of about 15mm from the breadboard, and this saves also a lot of space on the breadboard.
9/5/10How Stepper Motors WorkA new theory is uploaded! Learn how the stepper motors are made, the different types and the operation of those incredible motors.
27/4/10Closed Loop high frequency PWM PC Fan ControllerA new circuit has been uploaded! This circuit performs a closed loop PWM fan controller. This means that the potentiometer, does NOT directly sets a duty cycle value. Instead, it sets an RPM reference value. The controller will increase or decrease the duty cycle automatically, until the real fan speed matches to the reference rpm value from the potentiometer. This way, the fan will not decrease the speed due to dust or bearing wear.
25/4/10PIC DCV Controlled AC Light DimmerA new circuit is uploaded! This is an AC dimmer controlled by a DC voltage level. These dimmers are very flexible, as they can be controlled with a potentiometer, or a PLC, or a photocell, or anything else that provides a DC control voltage, without changing the circuit!
19/4/10Experimenting with ThermocouplesA new experiment page is uploaded! I run some experiments with a pair of thermocouple wires, to see how they behave in high temperatures, and also to have fun!
17/4/10How Thermocouples (TCs) WorkA new theory is uploaded! I explain how the thermocouples are made, and how can someone use a thermocouple to read very high and very low temperatures.
10/4/10Hacks n ModsA new section is introduced! The name is Hacks n Mods. In this section, projects from readers (and not only) shall be published. Crazy hacks, mad projects, computer mods and whatever is interesting to watch!
7/4/10PC Fan Controlling MethodsHaving the fans categorized by the number of wires they have, i explain the reasons and the ways that they can be controlled. For each controlling method i have at least one link to a circuit that demonstrates this method, as well as i have links to interesting theories for the operation of the PC fans.
3/4/10High Frequency PWM Fan ControllerA new circuit has been uploaded! Using only a 555 timer, i make a high frequency PWM rpm fan controller. I include 2 circuit variations: one for controlling 4-wire PWM fans, and one for controlling simple 2 and 3-wire fans.
1/4/10A Simple yet Reliable ThermostatA new circuit has been uploaded! This is a thermostat made of a few components and a 741 chip. This circuit can be adjusted from 22 to 50 degrees Celsius with a hysteresis of about 2 degrees. It is originally designed for cooling applications like the PC box or an electric cabinet. I give detailed info though, how to change the range and the hysteresis to use it as you may.
31/3/10PC Fan Failure AlarmA new circuit has been uploaded! This alarm system will activate a buzzer (or a relay), if a PC fan has stalled, mechanically blocked or rotates at very low rpm. The circuit will use the tacho wire of the fan to check its condition.
31/3/10Simple Linear Fan ControllerA new circuit has been uploaded! This is the simplest fan linear control using a transistor, a potentiometer, 2 resistors and 2 capacitors.
29/3/10How PC Fans WorkA new theory page is uploaded. A PC fan is put in the microscope to find out how it works. Then, i explain the operation principles for the most popular PC fans.
29/3/10The Hall SensorA new theory page is uploaded. Learn how what is inside the Hall sensor and how its operation principle.
28/3/10How Brushless Motors Work (BLDC Motors)A new theory page is uploaded. I explain in details how the Brushless DC motors with permanent magnets are made. Also, i explain the operation principals of these motors.
27/3/10How DC Motors are made and how they workA new theory page is uploaded. I explain in details how the Brushed DC motors with permanent magnets are made. Also, i explain the operation principals of these motors.
24/3/10Miniature 2.4 Volts LED FlasherAfter 1700 hours of continouus operation, the miniature LED flasher drained the batteries!
23/3/10Simple Ways to Make Fans SilentA new series of circuits is uploaded. For those who do not want to spend money and time, or those who have no idea of electronics, i present 4 different circuits for controlling the speed of PC fans. All circuits use one type of component and a switch. Easier cannot be!
22/3/10PC System Health MonitorGood news and better news. The good news is that i hacked the PCB and uploaded the new firmware on the PICs and put the fans back in the box for test run. The better news is that They work smoother, the rpm asymmetry is gone, and from min rpm to max rpm i have up to 80 speed steps!
21/3/10PWM 3-Wires Fan Controller with RPM feedback (Pulse Stretching Method)A new circuit is uploaded. Using a potentiometer, i control the speed of a PC fan, from 350rpm up to it's max speed (1300 rpm). The fan is a 3-wire PC fan. Using the Pulse-Stretching method, i get accurate RPM feedback, twice a second, and display them on an LCD display.
20/3/10PC System Health MonitorGood news and bad news i had. The good news are that the new layout of the cabinet is super. The HDDs are just about 4 degrees above ambient, and the CPU 14 degrees. The bad news is that the inlet fans, the ones that i controlled by averaging the PWM pulses, had some slight problems during these 30 days of operation. Thus, i decided to change the controlling method once more, and hopefully it will be the last one.
17/3/10Instruction Cycle Duration and Programmable DelaysA new page in the PIC-Book is uploaded. Learn how to calculate the instruction cycle length and how to make delays with subroutines.
16/3/10High Frequency Function Generator with the Maxim MAX038The project has been updated with new material.
13/3/10How relays workA new theory is uploaded. As i got many emails from users, asking me to explain how the relay works, i decided to make this 4-pages article. I explain in details how they works, with illustration and animations, and explain the different relay types.
7/3/10High Frequency Function Generator with the Maxim MAX038A new project has began. Using the MAX038 function generator IC, i will make a function generator circuit with many capabilities. I plan to install this project on my workbench and use it for my experiments. According to the chip's documentation, i will have rectangular, sine wave and triangular waveform output up to 20 MHz, with duty cycle adjustment from 15 to 85%.
2/3/10PCB Etching Bath with Heater and AgitationA new project has just began. Every lab must have an etching tank. I make my own etching tank with heater and air-bubbles for agitation.
28/2/10Wall Clock Accurate Oscillator HackFind out how the wall clock motor operates. it is ingenious! Also, get an accurate oscillator for your circuits, out of an ordinary wall clock!
26/2/10Hacking a Pioneer Car Cassette PlayerA new chop-job is uploaded! I hack the face-off connector of the player, so that i can get all the info displayed on it's built-in ugly orange LCD, and display it on my own neat displays.
23/2/10PCB Photographic Artwork Transfer UV CabinetThe cherry on the cake! The control panel is finally ready. After many tests and many PCB creations, the box proved it's value! It just works, and i will keep it as is. I may make another more advanced cabinet though, as the method for inserting the PCB in the box could be better.
21/2/10Alpha version of circuit categorization is releasedI am trying to make a reasonable and compact, yet flexible categorization for the circuits that i currently have upload and the circuits that i will upload later. Check out the Alpha version. TAKE PART! Email me (webmaster) with your opinion and/or your suggestion for the final version of the categories.
21/2/10PIC Thermometer and ThermostatA new circuit is uploaded. A thermometer/thermostat especially designed for etching baths. It will display the etching solution temperature, and moreover, it will control the heating element, so that the solution will be always 1 degree Celsius around 40 degrees. It uses a NTC sensor to measure the temperature, and a relay to control the heater.
19/2/10Reuse and/or extend the Molex connectorsA new chop-job is uploaded! The molex type connectors are put in the PCB Heaven chop-shop. This article demonstrates how can someone reuse and/or extend the molex connectors.
16/2/10Computer power connectorsA new theory is uploaded. Lined up, the power connectors used in the computers, since 1981, with photos,pinout description and part numbers.
15/2/10Car Dome Light Off DelayA new circuit is uploaded. A complete circuit to replace the car's dome light off-delay circuitry. Depending on the light bulb that is used, this circuit will turn off the lamp by dimming it slowly.
14/2/10PC System Health Monitor - Re-designing the entrailsThe box will now run with 4 120mm fans, 2 for input and 2 for output. I placed the fans inside and sealed the box. I will record the readings of the sensors for a week, under different ambient temperatures and different fan speeds to find the optimum operation.
14/2/10PC System Health Monitor - The first test-run with all 4 fansI ran the first test-run with all 4 fans connected to the local bus. Check out the results. Also, i posted the second controller circuit for the Zalman fans.
13/2/10The section -Cookies on our website- has been modifiedTwo new cookies have been added to the list: 1) PCBH_Comments_Ses - Important cookie for login into the comment boardsn, 2) PCBH_rnd_disp - Cookie for diaplaying random circuits and/or other staff
12/2/10PC System Health Monitor - New faster fans - new controller circuitI received 2 new 120mm fans for the air inlet, more powerful and much faster. I faced a new challenge: These fans dod not cooperate with the controller circuit that i already had.
7/2/10The Schmitt TriggerThis theory page has been enriched with another Schmitt Trigger circuit, using Op-Amp with single power supply.
7/2/10Op-Amp single power supply Schmitt Trigger circuit calculatorA new calculator is added to our Dr.Calculus pages. This calculator will calculate the parts for a non-symmetrical single power supply Schmitt Trigger circuit
4/2/10PC System Health Monitor - A huge failureA bad design to the box will delay the process.
30/1/10PC System Health MonitorThe project has been enriched with new material. The local bus and the analog temperature sensors have been made and tested. See the results!
29/1/10Homemade Foot Pedal For PCB DrillsA really handy project for those who prefer to make their own PCBs, or those who just love the dremel-jobs. A foot pedal that turns on and off the drill makes drilling easier.
26/1/10PC System Health MonitorThis project is a complete PC System Health monitoring system and has 6 PWM regulated fans with rpm feedback and rpm stabilizer, 9 NTC temperature sensors for the 6 HDDs and 3 positions in the PC box, 5 auxiliary analog inputs for future upgrades and 2 precision temperature sensors for the air inlet and outlet.
1/1/10DC voltage controlled light dimmerThis circuit was a request from a friend. He wanted me to design a dimmer circuit, that it could be controlled from the 0-10 Volts DC analog output from a PLC module. The circuit had to be precise and steady. Also, he asked me, if possible, not to use microcontroller.
31/12/09Electronic DiceA new circuit is uploaded. This is a simple but interesting circuit. Not really practical application, but the way that the LEDs are driven to perform the dice numbers is really interesting.
27/12/09Simple Kecode LockNew circuit upload! A simple and yet secure digital key-lock circuit without the use of micro controller!
26/12/09Frequency MeasuringLearn the basic techniques of digital frequency measuring
23/12/09Transistor Schmitt Trigger circuit calculatorA new calculator is added to our Dr.Calculus pages. This calculator will calculate the parts for a Schmitt Trigger circuit implemented with two NPN transistors
23/12/09Op-Amp non-symmetrical Schmitt Trigger circuit calculatorA new calculator is added to our Dr.Calculus pages. This calculator will calculate the parts for a non-symmetrical Schmitt Trigger circuit
23/12/09Op-Amp symmetrical Schmitt Trigger circuit calculatorA new calculator is added to our Dr.Calculus pages. This calculator will calculate the parts for a symmetrical Schmitt Trigger circuit
23/12/09The Schmitt TriggerThe 3 most basic and most common types of a Schmitt Trigger circuit implementation is covered within this section.
19/12/09Identifying the digital caliper protocolAll digital calipers have a communication port built-in, so that it can be interfaced with a PC or a remote LCD screen. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the port pins and try to read the protocol of the caliper. Two experiments will take place, using two different calipers, so that both the BCD and Binary data transmission protocol is covered.
15/12/09Low Cost PIC ThermometerThis low-cost circuit will use the built in ADC (analog to digital converter) module of the PIC microcontroller to measure the output voltage of a voltage divider consisted of a metal film resistor and a NTC thermistor. The PIC will then use the characteristic line (slope and offset) of the thermistor to calculate the temperature.
15/12/09PIC Precision Thermometer and Humidity meter using the SHT15This circuit is a high accuracy temperature and humidity meter, using the SHT15 chip from Sensirion. The results are displayed on a 20x4 LCD display. The micro controller used for this application is the PIC16F631.
15/12/09PIC Precision Thermometer using the DS1621A high accuracy temperature meter using a PIC 16F631 and the DS1621 cascadeable temperature meter chip from Dallas semiconductors. The implementation is done with two DS1621. It can be extended up to 8 chips with using only 2 communication lines from the PIC and with very slight modification to the code. The results are shown on a 20x4 LCD display.
6/12/09The Least Squares FittingNew theory page! Learn how to draw the best-fitting line for a batch of X-Y pairs, using the Least Squares method.
6/12/09Experimenting with a thermistorNew article has been posted in our Chopshop & Experiments section! The article title is Experimenting with a thermistor. Using a high precision digital thermometer and a 10K thermistor, i try to regenerate the characteristic of the thermistor and distinguish its type.
6/12/09Line Equation calculatorDr.Calculus has been enriched with a calculator for solving the Line Equation
6/12/09The Least Squares method calculatorDr.Calculus has been enriched with a calculator for calculating the best-fitting line using the Least Squares method
7/11/09New site section introduced !!!A new site section has been introduced! This is the "Electronic Projects" section. In this section can be hosted all electronic projects that will be posted to the forum "Your Projects" section.
2/9/09The 'Learning PICs @ PCB Heaven' on-line book has begun!This book will learn you how to program a PIC micro controller. The book has three sections, the beginner's section, the intermediate and the advanced section. Each theory has an on-line test as well to test the knowledge taken from this page. Also, at the end of each section, there are several circuit tutorials fully documented with all code and schematics needed for implementation!
7/8/09PIC 3-Wire Fan RPM ControllerA new electronic circuit has been posted! This is a DC fan controller using high frequency PWM pulses to control a 3-wire fan. The fan sends feedback to the PIC that automatically micro-adjusts the PWM duty cycle to maintain steady rpm.
3/7/09Triangle wave generatorA new electronic circuit has been posted! A very simple and yet useful triangle wave generator. It uses two OP-AMPS and the oscillation frequency is chosen from a resistor and a capacitor.
20/6/09Light / Dark Activated RelayA new electronic circuit has been posted! Three very popular and effective light/dark switching circuits are put under the microscope. PCBHeaven tech labs will test, present and compare those circuits for you to choose the best to fit your needs!
20/6/09How RC Servos WorksA new electronic theory page has been uploaded! Learn how an RC syncro servo works, and how you can control it.
13/6/09The Peltier thermo element (TEC)A new electronic theory page has been uploaded! The operation and the calculations needed to operate efficiently a Peltier thermo element all gathered in one page with easy to understand drawings and charts.
10/6/09TV Remote Control JammerA new electronic circuit has been posted! This is a very simple circuit to have fun with your friends and not only. This circuit will generate a series of infrared light pulses that will block the remote control signals to the TV, the stereo, the DVD and generally any remote control that uses IR light.
30/5/09MAME Arcade-style console circuitA new electronic circuit has been posted! This circuit wille let you interface 24 (or more) inputs as well as a PS2 keyboard to a single PC PS2 port. The 24 inputs will corespond to 24 keyboard keys. This circuit completely elimenates the problem that exists when playing MAME and the player (one or more players) clicks many buttons simultanousely...
14/5/09PWM fan speed controlA new electronic circuit has been posted! A very simple but effective PWM voltage controller that can control the rpm speed of cooling fans inside PC cases or whatever. The circuit is composed by a 555 timer and a very few more components and remains so simple, that even an amateur can make it.
9/4/09PC Cooling MethodsA new BLOG article has been posted! The most popular PC Cooling methods are described and analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of the various pc cooling methods are presented with respect to the efficiency of each cooling system.
9/4/09The resistorA new electronic theory page has been uploaded! The history, the types and the theory concerning the most common and important part of electronics, the resistor, is written for the amateur electronics to understand how the resistor works. It is a part that no electronic project can avoid.
9/4/09TRIAC (TRIode for Alternating Current) theoryA new electronic theory page has been uploaded! The TRIAC has been the perfect replacement for the solid state relays, and the perfect electronic controlled switch for the AC current loads. Learn how TRIAC works and how can you add it to your electronic projects the easy way.
26/3/09New BLOG pagesA new section has been introduced! PCB Heaven becomes more social and introduces the BLOG section. The authors of PCB Heaven as well as the visitors of our site have the place to unfold their favorite subject.
25/3/09SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) theoryA new electronic theory page has been uploaded! The Silicon Controlled Rectifier, also known as SCR, changed the way that we used to control power loads such as motors, light and other loads. Learn how the Silicon Controlled rectifier is used and how to add the SCR to your electronic projects!
22/3/09LED resistor calculatorA new electronic calculator has been uploaded! Your favorite Dr.Calculus calculators have been enriched with a new sophisticated electronic calculator. An easy to use and extremely flexible LED resistor calculator can calculate the protective resistance for a series of LEDs, a parallel connection and even for a symmetric mixed LED connection.
21/3/09Reading part valuesThe Reading Part Values wiki page has been enriched! New content added on how to select the closes resistor value to the calculated value. A complete reference guide on how to select standard electronic parts for your projects and circuits, as close as can be to your calculations.
21/3/09Resistor standard valuesA new electronic calculator has been uploaded! The resistor standard value selector is up and running. With this calculator you may enter the calculated resistor value and as return you will get the closest resistor value that can be found in the market!
21/3/09LED theoryA new electronic theory has been uploaded! How to connect LEDs is for an amateur sometimes a difficult work. Learn how LEDs operate and how to connect them to the any power supply in any way and make them finally work.
18/3/09555 theoryA new electronic theory page has been uploaded! The most complete and easy to understand theory page for the most popular IC of all times, the 555 timer is up and running. It is almost sure that everyone had once added a 555 to his/her electronic projects. It's time to learn how this successfully integrated circuit.
11/3/09Dimmer theoryA new electronic theory page has been uploaded! The dimmer theory is enriched and updated with new material and drawings. The most popular wiki page is up again. Get the safest and most reliable zero cross detection circuit and make fancy dimmer projects easy.
10/3/09PWM Signal theoryA new electronic theory page has been uploaded! PWM signals are widely used to numerous applications. Learn how they work and how you could use them to make easily sophisticated PWM electronic projects!
7/3/09PIC micro-controllers cornerAll about PIC micro-controllers have new content! Check out the mathematic pages and learn how can someone make a division using a PIC! Conversion routines can also be found and they will fascinate you. Your electronic projects and circuits can now become further more scientific!
6/3/09The PS2 ProtocolA new electronic theory page has been uploaded! Analytic theory about the PS2 protocol, the commands and the communication between the keyboard and the computer, in a handy straight forward article. Technically orientated so that a PS2 electronic project can be easily created.
6/3/09IC Interfacing techniquesA electronic new theory page has been uploaded! Learn the interfacing techniques required to interface together ICs from different families and supply voltages. Make fail safe electronic projects with integrated circuits.
4/3/09PCB Heaven upgraded!The PCB Heaven has been upgraded!!! A completely new interface and outlook with easy navigation through the pages is introduced. Enriched electronic circuit archive with new electronic circuits and sophisticated electronic projects.

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